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Osaka – Japan

Osaka, which is usually pronounced just “Osaka,” is a designated city in Japan’s Kansai prefecture on the island of Honshu. The third most populous city in Japan, after Special wards of Tokyo and Yokohama, it serves as the capital and largest city of Osaka Prefecture. It is also the largest part of the Keihanshin Metropolitan …

Kawasaki – Kanagawa

One of the major cities in the Greater Tokyo Area and the Keihin Industrial Area is Kawasaki (Kawasaki-shi), which is located in the Kanagawa Prefecture of Japan. After Yokohama, it is the second most populous city in Kanagawa Prefecture and the eighth most populous city in all of Japan (including the Tokyo Metropolitan Area). With …

Okinawa Island

The largest of Japan’s Ryukyu (Nansei) Islands, Okinawa Island is located in the Kyushu area. Of Japan’s five main islands, this one is the smallest and least populous. The island has a total size of 1,206.98 square kilometers, is around 106 kilometers (66 mi) long, and is typically 11 kilometers (7 mi) wide (466.02 sq …

Japanese rail travel

In Japan, rail travel is a significant mode of passenger transportation, particularly for high-speed, mass transit between large cities and for commuter transportation in urban regions. Just 0.84% of the movement of goods use it for freight transportation, which is a very small percentage. The privatized network runs extremely punctually, efficiently, and with minimal support. …

Samurai and Bushi are commonly used interchangeably

“Bushi” is frequently used interchangeably with “samurai.” one of the top sources for information regarding Tokugawa Japan. Even though the two phrases are frequently used interchangeably, it is important to realize that they differ if one applies a rigorous definition of “samurai.” Two Chinese characters, “bu” (which means “military” or “martial”) and “shi,” which means …

The Heart of Japan – Honshū

The largest island in Japan, Honshu, is frequently referred to be the country’s mainland. In addition to providing significant ecological diversity from north to south and east to west, Honshu’s mountainous spine separates the Pacific coast from the Sea of Japan coast and produces regional meteorological effects. These regional and local climate patterns then have …

Bannermen (Hatamoto)

The bannermen (hatamoto) and the gokenin made formed the Tokugawa shogun’s retainer band (also known as liege vassals), which comprised two sections totaling roughly 22,000 men (house men). In 1700, the territories officially awarded to the two types of liege vassals totaled 2,606,545 koku, as opposed to the 4,213,171 koku immediately owned by the shogunate. …

Samurai Armor

Military tools (bugu), or items used in battle for both offensive and defense, are within the broad category of armor. It included a helmet, a mask, two shoulder pads, arm guards, a cuirass, various lower-abdomen defensive components, and thigh and shin guards. The two main functions of armor were to provide protection to the warrior …

Arai Hakuseki (1657-1725)

Arai Hakuseki, a Confucian scholar and official, advised the shoguns Tokugawa Ienobu and Ietsugu in the early eighteenth century and contributed to influencing economic and diplomatic policies. When Ietsugu passed away, Hakuseki resigned from his position as secretary of state and started a career as a prolific writer of Japanese history, political philosophy, military arts, …

Samurai – Ambassadors

After Japan was opened to Western countries in 1853, samurai once again played a significant diplomatic and foreign policy role in the nation’s foreign relations. The Tenshô embassy (1582-1590) and the Keichô embassy (1613-1620) were diplomatic missions dispatched to Europe earlier in order to foster trade relations at a time when the continent was relatively …